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Παρασκευή, 26 Σεπτεμβρίου 2008

THE RESISTANCE IN PORT SAID 1956




When the assault on Egypt and Port Said happened and from what I think a clever thinking from Nasser and his advisors, President Nasser issued the presidential decree of forming the public under ground resistance , and appointed Abd El-Fatah Abu El-Fadl as the head of it , Abu-Fadl for those who don't know later became the deputy of the head of the Egyptian intelligence,already in that time Zakirah Mohi El-Din ,the head of the Egyptian intelligence ,had another title I found in the documents in Dr. El-Shear Website that was "The general supervisor of resistance across the Arab world "
Gen.Abu El-Fadl was the communication link between Cairo and the people of Port Said
Yet the real God father of the Port Said under ground or secret what ever you call it from resistance was major Kamal El-Sayed , a police officer who had a past experience in resistance and worked with the intelligence during the existence of the British Canal Military base, El-Sayed was the coordinator of the operations in Port Said ,as I said he was considered as the God father of the resistance and that according to Port Said online despite the existence of many important names , real important names from the special forces and Egyptian intelligence

The groups of the resistance were 8 groups "check this chart from Dr.Yahia El-Shaer,already I am sorry that it is only in Arabic , I swear if I have time I would translate it " , yet there were more of the Fadeyeens groups coming to the city under the siege through the Manazla lake ,the number of those external groups reached to 5 groups and this according to Portsaid online
The head quarter or the operation room of the resistance was in the office of the officer Detective in the upper floor of the El-Arab Quarter police station , and they hided the wireless in the house of someone you probably read his name frequently in this series Dr Yahia El-Shaer , they hided it in El-Shaers house , already young Yahia El-Shaer and his brother were member in the resistance and before that they were members in the national guards.
There is a very unique story as their Mother late Mrs Amina bravely saved the wireless and the Egyptian officer who was sending telegram when the following happened, the British knew there was some wireless some where in the area as they got the signal, and thus the order came to the British soldiers to search every house , every flat ,every room and every crack to find that bloody wireless , already lady Amina bravely hided the device and the man with his submachine in the closet of her bed room , when she knew they were searching in the neighborhood, when they came to their apartment ,as soon as they entered and began to search ,she pretended to be panic and fainted ,yes she faked her fainted ,of course all the neighbors gathered and so ,when the British saw that scene ,they freaked out and left the house without searching the rest of the rooms ,the last thing they wanted was a public anger because of freaking out a lady ,already here are the pictures of the wireless that El-Shaer family hided in their house
The Egyptian resistance as any resistance in world began to have its publicity flyers whether the encouraging flyers or the English flyers from the kind "Johnny you are so dead ,you are going to die in Port Said..etc" {Johnny was the name the Egyptians used to call on any British soldier},The one who used to write it down with famous Journalist "Mustafa Shardy" along with others and they were called the "Hatshama group"and they worked in a very small print shop of Mr Mohamed Shaker Maklof and Mr Magrabi, and the first flyer was to encourage the people in Port Said and it held the title "We Will fight,We will fight" from the famous historical speech president Nasser said in Al-Azhar mosque on the 2nd of November 1956 "You can read the full speech in Arabic from here or here and English here,You can download it here from BBC Arabic . The English flyers used to reach to the British camps by either two ways from the Fadeyeens , the commandos or the Cyprus workers from the British base in Cyprus who came with the British army , already the Greeks and Cypriots stood beside the Egyptians in that war The transportation of the weaponry to Port Said was a big problem not an easy with the city under a siege , it was even worst from smuggling the weaponry to Hezbollah, anyway Major El-Sayed thought about the fishermen in Al-Manazla lake , they were many but the choice was hard because it was a very critical thing ,in the end he chose a certain family from fishermen , the "Abd El-Manams" who used to hide the weapons under the fish in their boats. Transferring the weapons was a very dangerous mission yet the people didn't fear from it and thus you would find that even young ladies joined this mission,for example a lady that appears in the Al-Jazeera special documentary about the resistance Mrs Zeinab ,who recalls who she transferred the weapons inside her car and her little niece was beside her , and how the British soldiers stopped her and asked her about herself and the kid , Zeinab wisely and boldly answered him saying that the kid's name was Abd El-Nasser , and even before the soldier opened his mouth ,he found that people began to gather and thus he let her go , already people gathered to see what the problem of that officer with that lady and that fricked the officer ,the last thing they wanted to do was to raise sensitive issues
The operations of the secret resistance ranged from the defense of the city then spying and collecting information about the invaders to dangerous and violent operations of kidnapping and killing
For example the people used to hunt down the soldiers by putting snipers on the roofs and on higher floors in the building which made the British mad and bombed the buildings madly
Also the Fadeyeens used to steal "I don't know if it is the proper word" the weapons of the British soldiers and thus the orders came from the high command of the British army to its soldiers to attach the weapons on their bodies and not to roam alone but with a group on the 8th of November 1956 ,of course this didn't stop the resistance

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Egypt 1956 War Relations between Nasser and the West reached a crisis over plans to finance the Aswan High Dam. Construction of the dam was one of the earliest decisions of the Free Officers. It would increase both electrical generating power and irrigated land area. It would serve industry and agriculture and symbolize the new Egypt. The United States agreed to give Egypt an unconditional loan of US$56 million, and Britain agreed to lend Egypt US$14. The British loan was contingent on the American loan. The World Bank also agreed to lend Egypt an additional US$200 million. The World Bank loan stipulated that Egypt's budget be supervised by World Bank officials. To Nasser these conditions were insulting and were reminiscent of Europe's control over Egypt's finances in the 1870s. While Nasser admitted to doubts about the West's sincerity, the United States became incensed over Egypt's decision to recognize communist China. Meanwhile, the Soviet Union was offering aid to Egypt in several forms, including a loan to finance the Aswan High Dam. Then, on July 19, the United States withdrew its loan offer, and Britain and the World Bank followed suit. Nasser was returning to Cairo from a meeting with President Tito and Prime Minister Nehru when he heard the news. He was furious and decided to retaliate with an action that shocked the West and made him the hero of the Arabs. On July 26, 1956, the fourth anniversary of King Faruk's exile, Nasser appeared in Muhammad Ali Square in Alexandria where twenty months earlier an assassin had attempted to kill him. An immense crowd gathered, and he began a three-hour speech from a few notes jotted on the back of an envelope. When Nasser said the code word, "de Lesseps," it was the signal for engineer Mahmud Yunis to begin the takeover of the Suez Canal. The canal's owner was the Suez Canal Company, an international company with headquarters in Paris. Anthony Eden, then British prime minister, called the nationalization of the canal "theft," and United States secretary of state Dulles said Nasser would have to be made to "disgorge" it. The French and British depended heavily on the canal for transporting oil supplies, and they felt that Nasser had become a threat to their remaining interests in the Middle East and Africa. Eden wanted to launch a military action immediately but was informed that Britain was not in a position to do so. Both France and Britain froze Egyptian assets in their countries and increased their military preparedness in the eastern Mediterranean. Egypt promised to compensate the stockholders of the Suez Canal Company and to guarantee right of access to all ships, so it was difficult for the French and British to rally international support to regain the canal by force. The Soviet Union, its East European allies, and Third World countries generally supported Egypt. The United States moved farther away from Britain and stated that while it opposed the nationalization of the canal, it was against the use of force. What followed was the invasion of Egypt by Britain, France, and Israel, an action known as the Tripartite Invasion or the 1956 War. Whereas the truth about the invasion eventually became known, at the time the Conservative government in London denied that it used Israel as an excuse for attacking Egypt. Eden, who had an intense personal dislike for Nasser, concealed the cooperation with Israel from his colleagues, British diplomats, and the United States. The plan, which was supposed to enable Britain and France to gain physical control of the canal, called for Israel to attack across the Sinai Desert. When Israel neared the canal, Britain and France would issue an ultimatum for an Egyptian and Israeli withdrawal from both sides of the canal. An Anglo-French force would then occupy the canal to prevent further fighting and to keep it open to shipping. Israeli prime minister David Ben-Gurion agreed to the plan but informed Britain that Israel would not attack unless Britain and France first destroyed the Egyptian air force. On October 28, Israeli troops crossed the frontier into the Sinai Peninsula (also seen as Sinai), allegedly to destroy the bases of Egyptian commandos. The first sign of collusion between Israel and Britain and France came on the same day when the Anglo-French ultimatum was handed to Egypt and Israel before Israel had even reached the canal. British bombing destroyed the Egyptian air force, and British and French paratroopers were dropped over Port Said and Port Fuad. The Egyptians put up fierce resistance. Ships were sunk in the canal to prevent transit. In the battle for Port Said, about 2,700 Egyptian civilians and soldiers were killed or wounded. Although it was invaded and occupied for a time, Egypt can claim to have emerged the victor. There was almost universal condemnation of the Tripartite Invasion. The Soviet Union threatened Britain and France with a rocket attack if they did not withdraw. The United States, angered because it had not been informed by its allies of the invasion, realized it could not allow the Soviet Union to appear as the champion of the Third World against Western imperialism. Thus, the United States put pressure on the British and French to withdraw. Faced with almost total opposition to the invasion, the anger of the United States, and the threat of the collapse of the pound sterling, the British agreed to withdraw. Severely condemned, Britain and France accepted a cease-fire on November 6, as their troops were poised to advance the length of the canal. The final evacuation took place on December 22. Israel, which occupied all of Sinai, was reluctant to withdraw. President Dwight D. Eisenhower of the United States placed great pressure on Israel to give up all its territorial acquisitions and even threatened sanctions. The Israelis did withdraw from Sinai, but they carried out a scorched earth policy, destroying roads, railroads, and military installations as they went. A United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) was established and began arriving in Egypt on November 21. The troops were stationed on the Egyptian side of the Egyptian-Israeli border as well as along the eastern coast of Sinai. Israel refused to allow UN troops on its territory. The UN troops were stationed on the Gulf of Aqaba to ensure the free passage of Israeli shipping to Elat. The troops remained in Egypt until 1967, when their removal contributed to the outbreak of the June 1967 War. Egypt reopened the canal to shipping in April and ran it smoothly. It was open to all ships except those of Israel, and it remained open until the June 1967 War (Arab-Israeli war, also known as the Six-Day War). Diplomatic relations between Egypt and Britain were not restored until 1969. Nasser had won a significant victory. The immediate effect was that Britain and France were finally out of Egypt. Nasser went on to nationalize all other British and French assets in Egypt. The Egyptians now had full control of the canal and its revenues. The Suez crisis also made Nasser the hero of the Arab world, a man who had stood up to Western imperialism and had prevailed.